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For total ozone, the O3-CCI approach consists of minimizing sources of bias and systematic uncertainties by applying a common retrieval algorithm to all level 1 data sets, in order to enhance the consistency between the level 2 data sets from individual sensors. Measurements from the three sensors span more than 16 years, from to In particular, we investigate possible dependencies in these new GODFIT v3 total ozone data sets with respect to latitude, season, solar zenith angle, and different cloud parameters, using the most adequate type of ground-based instrument.

We show that these three O3-CCI total ozone data products behave very similarly and are less sensitive to instrumental degradation, mainly as a result of the new reflectance soft-calibration scheme. The mean bias to the ground-based observations is found to be within the 1 plus or minus 1 percent level for all three sensors while the near-zero decadal stability of the total ozone columns TOCs provided by the three European instruments falls well within the percent requirement of the European Space.

Observing lowermost tropospheric ozone pollution with a new multispectral synergic approach of IASI infrared and GOME -2 ultraviolet satellite measurements. Tropospheric ozone is currently one of the air pollutants posing greatest threats to human health and ecosystems. Monitoring ozone pollution at the regional, continental and global scale is a crucial societal issue. Only spaceborne remote sensing is capable of observing tropospheric ozone at such scales.

The spatio-temporal coverage of new satellite-based instruments, such as IASI or GOME -2, offer a great potential for monitoring air quality by synergism with regional chemistry-transport models, for both inter-validation and full data assimilation. However, current spaceborne observations using single-band either UV or IR measurements show limited sensitivity to ozone in the atmospheric boundary layer, which is the major concern for air quality.

This unique multispectral approach has allowed the observation of ozone plumes in the lowermost troposphere LMT, below 3 km of altitude over Europe, for the first time from space. Our first analyses are focused on typical ozone pollution events during the summer of over Europe. During these events, LMT ozone plumes at different regions are produced photo-chemically in the boundary layer, transported upwards to the free troposphere and also downwards from the stratosphere. Chlorophyll induced fluorescence retrieved from GOME 2 for improving gross primary productivity estimates of vegetation.

Mapping terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence is a crucial activity to obtain information on the functional status of vegetation and to improve estimates of light-use efficiency LUE and global primary productivity GPP. GPP quantifies carbon fixation by plant ecosystems and is therefore an important parameter for budgeting terrestrial carbon cycles. Satellite remote sensing offers an excellent tool for investigating GPP in a spatially explicit fashion across different scales of observation.

The GPP estimates, however, still remain largely uncertain due to biotic and abiotic factors that influence plant production. Sun-induced fluorescence has the ability to enhance our knowledge on how environmentally induced changes affect the LUE. This can be linked to optical derived remote sensing parameters thereby reducing the uncertainty in GPP estimates.

Satellite measurements provide a relatively new perspective on global sun-induced fluorescence, enabling us to quantify spatial distributions and changes over time. Techniques have recently been developed to retrieve fluorescence emissions from hyperspectral satellite measurements. The spectral signatures of three basic components atmospheric: An empirically based principal component analysis PCA approach is applied similar to that of Joiner et al.

Here we show our first global maps of the GOME 2 retrievals of chlorophyll fluorescence. In view of optimizing the fluorescence retrieval, we will show the effect of the references. H2O is also involved in many important reaction cycles of atmospheric chemistry, e. Thus, long time series of global H2O data are highly required.

In contrast to existing H2O retrieval algorithms it does not depend on additional information like e. It includes an internal cloud-, aerosol-, and albedo correction which is based on simultaneous observations of the oxygen dimer O4. For measurements over partly cloud covered ground pixels, however, the true atmospheric H2O VCD might be in general systematically underestimated. The correlation of the GOME observations and the model data yield the following results: Theys, N. Measurements from the GOME -2 satellite instrument have been analyzed for tropospheric BrO using a residual technique that combines measured BrO columns and estimates of the stratospheric BrO content from a climatological approach driven by O3 and NO2 observations.

We show that the adopted technique enables to separate the stratospheric and tropospheric fractions of the measured total BrO columns and allows studying the BrO plumes in polar region in more detail. While several satellite BrO plumes can largely be explained by an influence of stratospheric descending air, we show that numerous tropospheric BrO hotspots are associated to regions with low tropopause heights as well.

Elaborating on simulations using the p-TOMCAT tropospheric chemical transport model, this finding is found to be consistent with the mechanism of bromine release through sea salt aerosols production during blowing snow events. We show that the adopted technique enables separation of stratospheric and tropospheric fractions of the measured total BrO columns and allows quantitative study of the BrO plumes in polar regions.

While some satellite observed plumes of enhanced BrO can be explained by stratospheric descending air, we show that most BrO hotspots are of tropospheric origin, although they are often associated to regions with low tropopause heights as well. Elaborating on simulations using the p-TOMCAT tropospheric chemical transport model, this result is found to be consistent with the mechanism of bromine release through sea salt aerosols production during blowing snow events. No definitive conclusion can be drawn however on the importance of blowing snow sources in comparison to other bromine release mechanisms.

Full Text Available Measurements from the GOME -2 satellite instrument have been analyzed for tropospheric BrO using a residual technique that combines measured BrO columns and estimates of the stratospheric BrO content from a climatological approach driven by O 3 and NO 2 observations. Elaborating on simulations using the p -TOMCAT tropospheric chemical transport model, this result is found to be consistent with the mechanism of bromine release through sea salt aerosols production during blowing snow events.

The temporal and spatial variations of SO 2 columns over China were analyzed for the time period — Beijing and Chongqing showed a high concentration in the SO 2 columns, attributable to the use of coal for power generation in China and the characteristic of terrain and meteorology. The reduction of SO 2 columns over Beijing and surrounding provinces in was observed by OMI, which confirms the effectiveness of strict controls on pollutant emissions and motor vehicle traffic before and during Olympic and Paralympic Games. Noije, van T. We present a systematic comparison of tropospheric NO2 from 17 global atmospheric chemistry models with three state-of-the-art retrievals from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment GOME for the year Validation against Brewer measurements at the Iberian Peninsula.

In this analysis, spatially colocated, daily averaged ground-based observations performed by five well-calibrated Brewer spectrophotometers at the Iberian Peninsula are used. The period of study runs from January to December The agreement between satellite and ground-based TOC data is excellent R2 higher than 0. Nevertheless, the TOC data derived from both satellite instruments underestimate the ground-based data. On average, this underestimation is 1. The satellite-Brewer TOC differences for the two satellite instruments show a clear and similar dependence on the viewing zenith angle under cloudy conditions.

In this paper we present the first contiguous high-resolution spectra of the Earth's polarisation observed by a satellite instrument. The spectral resolution of these PMD RAW polarisation measurements varies from 3 nm in the ultraviolet UV to 35 nm in the near-infrared wavelength range. We first compare measurements of the polarisation from cloud-free scenes with radiative transfer calculations for a number of cases. We find good agreement but also a spectral discrepancy at nm, which we attribute to remaining imperfections in the calibration key data.

The GOME -2 polarisation spectra indeed show this behaviour and confirm the existence of the small discrepancy found earlier. Thirdly, we study the Earth polarisation for a variety of scenes. Full Text Available Este trabalho tem dois objetivos: A first comparison relates the GOME retrieved tropospheric columns to the tropospheric columns obtained by integrating the ground-based NO2 measurements. For a second comparison, the tropospheric profiles constructed from the ground-based measurements are first multiplied with the averaging kernel AK of the GOME retrieval.

This allows splitting the total difference between the column data sets into two contributions: Further analysis indicates small GOME columns being systematically smaller than the ground-based ones. The influence of different shapes in the a priori and.

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The influence of different shapes in the a. A secagem das sementes de H. Hancornia speciosa Gomes Apocynaceae, a fruiting plant originated from Brazil, has fruits obtained mainly by extractivism and its main form of propagation is by seeds. The objective of this research work was to evaluate the effect of drying on emergency and initial growth of seedlings of H.

For this purpose, spatially and temporally collocated TWVC data from highly accurate sounding measurements for the period January May at six sites are used. Finally, the satellite-sounding differences also show a negative dependence on the reference TWVC values, changing from. Starting from the global monitoring of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide is carried out by the measurements of nadir-viewing GOME spectrometer aboard ERS-2 satellite. Continuous validation of that data by means of comparisons with well-controlled ground-based measurements is important to ensure the quality of GOME data products and improve related retrieval algorithms.

At the station of Issyk-Kul Kyrgyzstan the ground-based spectroscopic observations of NO2 vertical column have been started since The station is located on the northern shore of Issyk-Kul lake, meters above the sea level The site is equipped with grating spectrometer for the twilight measurements of zenith-scattered solar radiation in the visible range, and applies the DOAS technique to retrieve NO2 vertical column. It is included in the list of NDSC stations as a complementary one.

The present study is focused on validation of GOME NO2 vertical column data, based on 8-year comparison with correlative ground-based measurements at Issyk-Kul station in Within the investigation, an agreement of both individual and monthly averaged GOME measurements with corresponding twilight ground-based observations is examined. In particular cases, NO2 vertical profiles retrieved from the twilight ground-based measurements at Issuk-Kul were also included into comparison. This work was supported by International Association.

The study also includes the diagnosis of the conservation state of the painting and the description of the cleaning intervention. For identification of the materials and determination of the conservation state, several analytical techniques were used: The analytical approach led to the identification of materials common at the time: After various cleaning tests, a gel suggested by the literature was chosen recipe no.

Wolbers and proved to be effective in the removal of the aged and polymerized varnish. Characterization of nutrient deficiency in Hancornia speciosa Gomes seedlings by omitting micronutrients from the nutrient solution. The production of seedlings of this species is limited by a lack of technical and nutritional expertise. To address this deficiency, this study aimed to characterize the visual symptoms of micronutrient deficiency and to assess growth and leaf nutrient accumulation in H.

The treatments consisted of a group receiving complete nutrient solution and groups treated with a nutrient solution lacking one of the following micronutrients: The visual symptoms of nutrient deficiency were generally easy to characterize. Dry matter production was affected by the omission of micronutrients, and the treatment lacking Fe most limited the stem length, stem diameter, root length, and number of leaves in H.

The micronutrient contents of H. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado. Penicillium sp. O controle de Fusarium spp. The objective of this work was to determine the physiological and sanitary quality of Senna multijugaseeds related to the methods of dormancy overcoming and the influence on the seedlings quality. The seeds had been submitted to the following methods: The tests of sanity, germination and tetrazolium had been carried through, and were evaluated the quality of the seedlings. For the germination of the evaluation an factorial project was. The use of satellite measurements for SO2 monitoring has become an important aspect in the support of aviation control.

Satellite measurements are sometimes the only information available on SO2 concentrations from volcanic eruption events. The detection of SO2 can furthermore serve as a proxy for the presence of volcanic ash that poses a possible hazard to air traffic. In that respect, knowledge of both the total vertical column amount and the effective altitude of the volcanic SO2 plume is valuable information to air traffic control. We present results from our algorithm for the simultaneous retrieval of total vertical columns of O3 and SO2 and effective SO2 plume height from GOME -2 backscattered radiance measurements.

The algorithm uses parameterized vertical SO2 profiles which allow for the derivation of the peak height of the SO2 plume, along with the trace gas total column amounts. To illustrate the applicability of the method, we present three case studies on recent volcanic eruptions: We find that the effective plume height can be obtained with a precision as fine as 1 km for moderate and strong volcanic events. Since this is valuable information for air traffic, we aim at incorporating the plume height information in the SACS system.

Lightning provides a natural source of nitrogen oxides, dominating the production in the tropical upper troposphere, with strong impact on tropospheric ozone and the atmosphere's oxidizing capacity. Recent estimates of lightning produced NOx LNOx are of the order of 5 Tg 3330 per year with still high uncertainties in the range of one order of magnitude. Simultaneously, cloud-to-ground CG flashes are counted by the U.

The enhancements can not be explained by transport of anthropogenic NOx and must be due to fresh production of LNOx. If simply extrapolated, this corresponds to a global LNOx production of 1. Both oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds, OVOC, are key intermediate species produced during the oxidation of precursor hydrocarbons. Their short lifetime of a few hours in the lower troposphere links them to emission sources and makes them useful tracers of photochemical activity.

The highest column amounts of these OVOCs are recorded over regions with enhance biogenic emissions e. Enhanced OVOC values are also present over areas of anthropogenic activity and biomass burning e. America, Europe and Australia. The ratio of CHO. R GF s below 0. This decreasing tendency of R GF with increasing NO 2 is also observed when analyzing data for individual large cities, indicating that it is a common feature.

This is explained by the excellent correlation of the global retrieved column amounts of CHO. Full Text Available This work aimed to study the behavior of the species Schizolobium parahyba var. The plot size was 18m x 24m with four repetitions per treatment, amounting for 28 plots and De Smedt, I. Its main features include 1 a new iterative DOAS scheme involving three fitting intervals to better account for the O2-O2 absorption, 2 the use of earthshine radiances averaged in the equatorial Pacific as reference spectra, and 3 a destriping correction and background normalisation resolved in the across-swath position.

For the air mass factor calculation, a priori vertical profiles calculated by the IMAGES chemistry transport model at Afternoon columns are generally larger than morning ones, especially in mid-latitude regions. In contrast, over tropical rainforests, morning H2CO columns significantly exceed those observed in the afternoon.

Validation results confirm the capacity of the combined satellite measurements to resolve diurnal variations in H2CO columns. Consistent features. Full Text Available The essay intends to approach, taking the documentary authored by the Portuguese journalist Diana Andringa and the Guinea producer Flora Gomes as a starting point, the theme of the memories in conflict, and to reflect upon the manners in which the image archives may function in the process of construction of a collective and shared memory.

We present the first directly retrieved global distribution of tropospheric column ozone from Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment GOME ultraviolet measurements during December to November The retrievals clearly show signals due to convection, biomass burning, stratospheric influence, pollution, and transport.

They are capable of capturing the spatiotemporal evolution of tropospheric column ozone in response to regional or short time-scale events such as the El Nino event and a DU change within a few days. The global distribution of tropospheric column ozone displays the well-known wave-1 pattern in the tropics, nearly zonal bands of enhanced tropospheric column ozone of DU at 20degSdegS during the austral spring and at 25degNdegN during the boreal spring and summer, low tropospheric column ozone of 33 DU at some northern high-latitudes during the spring.

Simulation from a chemical transport model corroborates most of the above structures, with small biases of GOME with monthly-averaged Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus in-service Aircraft MOZAIC tropospheric column ozone for these regions usually shows good consistency within 1 a standard deviations and retrieval uncertainties. Some biases can be accounted for by inadequate sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone, the different spatiotemporal sampling and the spatiotemporal variations in tropospheric column ozone.

Observing atmospheric formaldehyde HCHO from space: Full Text Available Formaldehyde HCHO column data from satellites are widely used as a proxy for emissions of volatile organic compounds VOCs, but validation of the data has been extremely limited. All retrievals feature a HCHO maximum over Arkansas and Louisiana, consistent with the aircraft observations and reflecting high emissions of biogenic isoprene. Our results support the use of satellite HCHO data as a quantitative proxy for isoprene emission after correction of the low mean bias. There is no evident pattern in the bias, suggesting that a uniform correction factor may be applied to the data until better understanding is achieved.

It is shown that such reports can be interpreted as a criticism of the social relations of the slave era by issuing some warnings to the landowners who failed to look after the health of their slaves. Global satellite measurements of solar-induced fluorescence SIF from chlorophyll over land and ocean have proven useful for a number of different applications related to physiology, phenology, and productivity of plants and phytoplankton.

Terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence is emitted throughout the red and far-red spectrum, producing two broad peaks near and nm. From ocean surfaces, phytoplankton fluorescence emissions are entirely from the red region nm peak. Studies using satellite-derived SIF over land have focused almost exclusively on measurements in the far red wavelengths greater than nm , since those are the most easily obtained with existing instrumentation.

Here, we examine new ways to use existing hyperspectral satellite data sets to retrieve red SIF wavelengths less than nm over both land and ocean. Red SIF is thought to provide complementary information to that from the far red for terrestrial vegetation. The satellite instruments that we use were designed to make atmospheric trace-gas measurements and are therefore not optimal for observing SIF; they have coarse spatial resolution and only moderate spectral resolution 0. Terrestrial SIF has been estimated with ground-, aircraft-, or satellite-based instruments by measuring the filling-in of atmospheric andor solar absorption spectral features by SIF.

Our approach makes use of the oxygen O2 gamma band that is not affected by SIF. In the tropical Pacific a significant seasonal variation is detected. Tropospheric excess ozone is enhanced during the biomass burning season from September to November due to outflow from the continents. Samoa Backtrajectory calculations show that none of the airmasses arriving over the three locations experienced anthropogenic pollution e. Consequently other sources of ozone have to be considered. One possible process leading to an increase of tropospheric ozone is stratosphere-troposphere-exchange.

An analysis of the potential vorticity along trajectories arriving above each of the locations reveals that airmasses at Tahiti are subject to enhanced stratospheric influence, compared to Am. Samoa and Fiji. As a result this study shows clear incidents of transport of airmasses from the stratosphere into the troposphere.

cochliacarpos gomes barneby: Topics by

For model output evaluation we primarily employ WV total column data from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment GOME on ERS-2, which is the only instrument capable measuring WV on a global scale and over all surface types with a substantial data record from to the present. We conclude that deficiencies in model parameters shared by MATCH and NRA, like in the surface evaporation rates and regional transport patterns, are likely to lead to the observed differences.

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  • Monthly average regional differences between MATCH modelled WV columns and the observations can be as large as 2 cm, based on the analysis of three years. Differences in the global mean WV values are, however, below 0. We find that MATCH has problems in modelling the WV content in regions of strong upward convection like, for example, along the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone, where it appears to be generally too dry as compared to the observations.

    Volcanic SO2 fluxes derived from satellite data: Full Text Available Sulphur dioxide SO2 fluxes of active degassing volcanoes are routinely measured with ground-based equipment to characterize and monitor volcanic activity. SO2 of unmonitored volcanoes or from explosive volcanic eruptions, can be measured with satellites. However, remote-sensing methods based on absorption spectroscopy generally provide integrated amounts of already dispersed plumes of SO2 and satellite derived flux estimates are rarely reported.

    Here we review a number of different techniques to derive volcanic SO2 fluxes using satellite measurements of plumes of SO2 and investigate the temporal evolution of the total emissions of SO2 for three very different volcanic events in We show that satellite data can provide fluxes with a sampling of a day or less few hours in the best case. Generally the flux results from the different methods are consistent, and we discuss the advantages and weaknesses of each technique. Although the primary objective of this study is the calculation of SO2 fluxes, it also enables us to assess the consistency of the SO2 products from the different sensors used.

    A biologia e o comportamento de P. O ciclo de vida de P. The biology and behaviour of P. Fruits found beneath 50 palms were collected, monthly, for each one of the two sampled areas at PNRJ ridge forest and Clusia Sclthdl Clusiaceae open shrubland formation. The evaluation of preyed fruits was done by counting exit holes of Bruchinae in the field.

    Landrum, Myrtaceae. Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus Gomes L. Landrum is a native species from Brazil and occurs mainly in cerrado, caatinga and Atlantic rainforest vegetation. It is a tree species whose leaves are used for cooking; they smell and taste like cloves Syzygium aromaticum. This study describes the leaf anatomy of the species. The leaves were sliced. Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa Gomes Apocynaceae is a fruit tree, popularly known as mangabeira, and it is widely distributed throughout Brazil.

    Several parts of the plant are used in folk medicine, and the leaf and bark extracts have anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of Hancornia speciosa leaves EEHS and its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities as well as the mechanisms involved in cell death. The antioxidant activity of the EEHS was investigated using the method that involves the scavenging of 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free radicals as well as the inhibition of oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation induced by 2,2'-azobis 2-amidinopropane in human erythrocytes.

    The antimicrobial activity was determined by calculating the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and zone of inhibition. Kasumi-1 leukemic cells were used to assess the cytotoxic activity and mechanisms involved in cell death promoted by the EEHS. The chemical compounds identified were quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol-rutinoside, and catechin-pentoside.

    The EEHS demonstrated antioxidant activity via the sequestration of free radicals, inhibition of hemolysis, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes incubated with an oxidizing agent. The antimicrobial activity was observed against American Type Culture Collection ATCC and hospital strains of bacteria and fungi, filamentous fungi and dermatophytes.

    The cytotoxic activity of the EEHS was induced by apoptosis, reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of cathepsins. Together, these results indicate the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Joiner, J. Globally mapped terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence retrievals are of high interest because they can provide information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling and agricultural applications.

    Previous satellite retrievals of fluorescence have relied solely upon the filling-in of solar Fraunhofer lines that are not significantly affected by atmospheric absorption. Although these measurements provide near-global coverage on a monthly basis, they suffer from relatively low precision and sparse spatial sampling.

    Here, we describe a new methodology to retrieve global far-red fluorescence information; we use hyperspectral data with a simplified radiative transfer model to disentangle the spectral signatures of three basic components: An empirically based principal component analysis approach is employed, primarily using cloudy data over ocean, to model and solve for the atmospheric absorption. Through detailed simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of the approach and show that moderate-spectral-resolution measurements with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio can be used to retrieve far-red fluorescence information with good precision and accuracy.

    Near-global coverage is provided within a few days. We are able to show clearly for the first time physically plausible variations in fluorescence over the course of a single month at a spatial resolution of 0. Global monitoring of terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence from moderate-spectral-resolution near-infrared satellite measurements: Full Text Available Globally mapped terrestrial chlorophyll fluorescence retrievals are of high interest because they can provide information on the functional status of vegetation including light-use efficiency and global primary productivity that can be used for global carbon cycle modeling and agricultural applications.

    During the dry monsoon season between January and March , local measurements were carried out from ground based platforms and were compared with satellite based data. The objective of this study was to characterise stratospheric and tropospheric trace gas amounts in the equatorial region, and to investigate the impact of air pollution at this remote site.

    The measurements were conducted using two different observation modes off-axis and zenith-sky. This technique allows the separation of the tropospheric and stratospheric columns for different trace gases like O3 and NO2. In addition, the analysis of the O3-sonde measurements allowed the determination of the tropospheric O3 amount. The comparison shows that the results of all three measurement systems agree within their error limits. During the INDOEX campaign, mainly background conditions were observed, but in a single case an increase of tropospheric NO2 during a short pollution event was observed from the ground and the impact on the vertical columns was calculated.

    GOME measurements showed evidence for small tropospheric contributions to the BrO budget, probably located in the free troposphere and. Verificou-se que as folhas sombreadas de M-UFRPE 2 transpiraram mais do que as expostas diretamente ao sol, diferindo do comportamento dos demais acessos. A Rs em folhas expostas ao sol variou de 1,1 a 4,5s. Os efeitos de ExRs foram inversos e altamente significativos para ambos os tratamentos estudados.

    The datas were taken from fully expanded adults leaves. Two treatments were studied: The following characters were analized: This behaviour was different compared to the other treatment. The variation between fully exposed leaves to the sun and shadow leaves for Rs was 1. The ExRs correlation was more significant and negative. The Tf and E correlation was longer influenced by relative humidity than photosynthetically.

    Diversity and genetic structure in natural populations of Hancornia speciosa var. Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa Gomes is a fruit tree native from Brazil that belongs to Apocinaceae family, and is popularly known as Mangabeira. Its fruits are widely consumed raw or processed as fruit jam, juices and ice creams, which have made it a target of intense exploitation.

    The extractive activities and intense human activity on the environment of natural occurrence of H. The objective of this research was the evaluation of the genetic diversity and genetic structure of H. The genetic variability was assessed using 11 allozyme loci with a sample of individuals distributed in six natural populations located in the States of Pernambuco and Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil. The estimated gene flow m was high, ranging from 2. The high genetic diversity index in these populations indicates potential for in situ genetic conservation.

    We compare the results to those from an established NO2 retrieval in the visible vis spectral range from the same instrument and investigate how differences between the two are linked to the NO2 vertical profile shape in the troposphere. As expected, radiative transfer calculations for satellite geometries show that the sensitivity close to the ground is higher in the vis than in the UV spectral range. Therefore, these differences in NO2 SCDs between the two spectral ranges contain information on the vertical distribution of NO2 in the troposphere.

    We combine these results with radiative transfer calculations and simulated NO2 fields from the TM5-MP chemistry transport model to evaluate the simulated NO2 vertical distribution. We investigate regions representative of both anthropogenic and biomass burning NO2 pollution. Biomass burning NO2 in contrast is often uplifted into elevated layers above the boundary layer. In tropical Africa north of the Equator, however, the biomass burning NO2 is located closer to the ground, reducing its visibility in the UV.

    While not enabling a full retrieval of the vertical NO2 profile shape in the troposphere, our results can help to constrain the vertical. Opera, Imagination and Society. Mexico and Brazil, Nineteenth Century. Connected Histories: Full Text Available This paper examines the role played by opera during the nineteenth century in Mexico and Brazil, with views to start a joint reflection on these two Latin American countries based on the career of two musicians: This essay does not aspire to be a paper on comparative history, let alone on musicology.

    My starting points are the bonds that tied Mexico, Brazil and Italy during the nineteenth century in the field of opera. The rivalry between these two musicians made us bring together and relate two rarely compared histories, two pasts, and two historiographies. High pollution events were observed during this campaign. The increase of pollution in that region leads to severe air quality degradation with regional and global implications. Reconstructed Solar-Induced Fluorescence: Solar-induced fluorescence SIF observations from space have resulted in major advancements in estimating gross primary productivity GPP.

    However, current SIF observations remain spatially coarse, infrequent, and noisy. The resulting product is a proxy for ecosystem photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by chlorophyll fAPARCh. RSIF also reproduces intense productivity regions such as the U. Corn Belt contrary to typical vegetation indices and similarly to SIF. Branca Dias: This study builds on a previously described methodology [2] that generates numerical weather prediction model initial conditions from ozone data.

    The MPV is estimated using the following expression: It is found that the ozone-influenced upper-level initializing fields affect the precipitation forecast, as diagnosed by a comparison with the ECMWF model. References [1] S. Sbii, N. Semane, Y. Michel, P. Arbogast and M. Zazoui Glyoxal is mostly formed in our atmosphere as an intermediate product in the oxidation of non-methane volatile organic compounds NMVOC. To a lesser extent, it is also directly emitted from biomass burning events and from fossil- and bio-fuel combustion processes. Several studies have estimated its atmospheric lifetime to hours, which makes of glyoxal a good indicator for short-lived NMVOC emissions.

    Glyoxal is also known to be a precursor for secondary organic aerosols and could help to reduce the gap between observations and models for organic aerosol abundances. The three absorption bands of glyoxal in the visible region allow applying the DOAS Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy technique to retrieve its vertical column densities from the nadir backscattered light measurements performed by the GOME -2 satellite sensor. This instrument has been launched in October on board of the METOP-A platform and is characterized by a spatial resolution of 80 km x 40 km and by a large scan-width km leading to a global coverage reached in 1.

    The GOME -2 glyoxal retrieval algorithm developed at BIRA-IASB accounts for the liquid water absorption and provides geophysically sound column measurements not only over lands but also over oceanic regions where spectral interferences between glyoxal and liquid water have been shown to be significant. The a-priori glyoxal vertical distribution required for the slant to vertical column conversion is provided by the global chemical transport model IMAGESv2.

    The highest glyoxal vertical column densities are mainly observed in continental tropical regions, while the mid-latitude columns strongly depend on the season with maximum values during warm months. An anthropogenic signature is also observed in highly populated regions of Asia.

    Comparisons with glyoxal columns simulated with IMAGESv2 in different regions of the world generally point to a missing glyoxal source in current models. As already reported from. City and School: In addition to functional elements, i. The documentary analysis was performed on the archives of the Directorship of Public Education and the Directorship of Public Works of Rio Grande do Sul, as well as various iconographic sources, capital improvement plans and periodicals of the time.

    The construction of the school inaugurated a new conception of the space and architecture of public elementary schools in the State, as the visible improvement and sanitation of the cities were considered of great importance in the period. The construction of school buildings was also one of the greatest advertising tools of the new Republican political regime. Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus Gomes Landrum: Foi simulado um conjunto de cinco curvas, sendo elas as de: The approach adopted for the conversion of slant to vertical columns is based on a simplified look-up-table approach.

    The strength and limitation of this approach are discussed using reference data retrieved using an optimal estimation scheme. The methodology of comparison, which is also a subject of the QA4ECV project, is reviewed with respect to co-location criteria, impact of vertical and horizontal smoothing and representativeness of validation sites.

    En caso de condena " Gome Lund y otros" que resonaron en la reparabilidad de las personas desaparecidas. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: Irwin and Barneby. From leaves of Senna spectabilis var. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis including two-dimensional NMR methods and comparison with published spectral data.

    This paper deals with the first report of these compounds in S. Ducke Barneby. Optimal dimensioning model of water distribution systems Gomes This study is aimed at developing a pipe-sizing model for a water distribution system. The optimal solution minimises the system's total cost, which comprises the hydraulic network capital cost, plus the capitalised cost of pumping energy. The developed model, called Lenhsnet, may also be used for economical design when Phacoemulsification of bilateral cataracts in two pet rabbits Gomes Two 3 year-old, healthy, client-owned Lop rabbits presented with bilateral cataracts.

    After performing a physical examination, bloodwork, ocular ultrasonography and electroretinography, both animals were deemed good surgical candidates for phacoemulsification. Bilateral cataract surgery was performed and both rabbits VizieR Online Data Catalog: FADO comes from the Latin word "fatum" that means fate or destiny. It is also a well known genre of Portuguese music, and by choosing this acronym for this spectral synthesis tool we would like to pay tribute to Portugal. The main goal of FADO is to explore the star-formation and chemical enrichment history the "Fado" of galaxies based on two hitherto unique elements in spectral fitting models: This document is part of the FADO v.

    It contains the configuration files for running FADO: L, the FADO v. Auxiliary files needed for execution of FADO. By decompressing the tarball the following six directories are created: Drying and osmotic conditioning in Hancornia speciosa Gomes seeds. Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa is a native tree species of the Brazilian Cerrado whose seeds are desiccation sensitive.

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate drying and osmotic conditioning in H. To evaluate osmotic conditioning, the seeds were imbibed in 12 mL osmotic solutions at 0. After that, they were dehydrated until their original moisture content. The experiments were carried out in a completely randomized design with four repetitions with 50 seeds each. Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the morphology of seeds and seedlings and evaluate the germination of seeds of Albizia edwallii submitted to different substrates and temperatures. In physical characterization were evaluated thousand seed weight, the number of seeds per kilogram and moisture content.

    To determine the morphological characteristics, it was evaluated the biometry of 50 seeds, as well as its internal and external characteristics. The variables were germination percentage, germination rate index, mean germination time, and synchronization index. The thousand seed weight was The seeds have an elliptical shape, no endosperm and have persistent funiculus. Germination is epigeal, and the seedling is phanerocotylar being fully formed at 15 days. The use of sand as a substrate provided better germination percentage than the other substrates.

    Genetic diversity of Schizolobium parahyba var. Ducke Barneby , in a forest area in Brazil. Schizolobium parahyba var. It is used on a commercial scale in the timber sector, pulp and paper production, reclamation projects in degraded and landscaped areas. In this sense, the present study aimed to characterize the genetic diversity in a population of S.

    The polymorphic information content performed for the ISSR markers revealed a mean of 0. One of the groups was formed with the majority of the individuals genotypes and the second with the minority 18 genotypes. The results revealed high genetic diversity in the population of S. At 7 and 21 days after the application of the herbicide, the photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf temperature were measured. The visual intoxication degree and the growth of the shoot and the root of the plants were evaluated 21 days after the application.

    The photosynthesis decrease promoted by an indirect action of glyphosate represents the main reduction on the growth of plants. The decrease on the stomatal conductance, which was the most sensitive physiological variable to glyphosate, resulted in lower transpiration rates, which, consequently, caused increases on the leaf temperature. To evaluate aqueous and ethanol extract of Cassia didymobotrya leaves against immature stages of Culex quinquefasciatus.

    The mortality rate of immature mosquitoes was tested in wide and narrow range concentration of the plant extract based on WHO standard protocol. The results clearly indicate that the rate of mortality was based dose of the plant extract and stage of the mosquitoes. From this study it is confirmed and concluded that Cassia didymobotrya is having active principle which is responsible for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus. The isolation of bioactive molecules and development of simple formulation technique is important for large scale implementation.

    Polymorphism, genetic diversity and structure parameters were determined to characterize the differences between plants. Results show a quantitative genetic diversity value of 0. Using cluster analysis it was possible to indentify five groups. Three individuals also stand out since they presented significant divergence from the groups. The PCoA formed four groups, with three of the groups isolated from the others. This investigation showed that genetic diversity was relatively large among these individuals. In addition, the results demonstrated that RAPD markers are a useful tool for evaluating the genetic diversity and relationships among mangaba.

    Accelerator, superplasticiter and silica gome by wet shotcrete; Hormigon Proyectado por Via Humeda. This project has been carried out by Geocontrol during the period September november The main target of this project was to establish a better knowledgement about the influence of the accelerator, silica fume, steel fibres and super plasticizer on the wet shotcrete properties. This project has been developed in three phases focused in three specifical targets: Effect of the accelerator, superplasticizer and silica fume dosages on shotcrete strength. Influence of steel fibres and silica fume on shotcrete characteristics.

    Steel fibres dosages and type effect of shotcrete absorbed energy. The main conclusions obtained from this research are the following. Accelerators free of alkalis have a very little influence on the shotcrete strength reduction. The best results with silica fume are obtained when this product is added as a separate product, instead to be missed with other additive as superplasticizer.

    Steel fibres addition improves dramatically the shotcrete post-failure characteristics. A shotcrete without steel fibres and with a strength ranged between 25 and 40 MPa absorbers Joules and another one with a steel mesh of xx6 mm absorbers Joules. Steel fibres shotcrete can reach the same energy absorption that another one reinforced with wire mesh. This research project allows to improve the knowledgement os shotcreting technique in order to use it with more efficiency than in the past.

    Reptilia, Serpentes, Dipsadidae, Gomesophis brasiliensis Gomes , Distribution extension in state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. This note reports the occurrence of G. The study involved four three-year-old provenances of Schizolobium parahyba var. The studied characteristics were: Differences among origins for the survival and growth in height of plant and DAP had been found, however, no differences were found for crown height characteristics, crown diameter, percentage plants of attacked plants and bark type. The provenance with the highest survival was Belterra.

    The Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a strong association among the production variables and the latitude, indicating that the provenances from lower latitudes tend to have a higher development. However, due to this study had involved only a small sample inside of the ample area of distribution of the species, it is advisable to extend the prospection and collecting activities for better explore the variability in the program of genetic improvement of the species.

    Caesalpinioideae as efficient mechanisms for attracting pollinators. Para a biologia floral observou-se: Os visitantes e polinizadores foram determinados observando-se: Vegetative and reproductive phenological observations leaf fall, leaf flushing, flowering, and fruiting were made on a monthly basis among a group of 10 individuals. The floral biology patterns observed included: Reproductive mechanisms were examined by testing manual and natural self-pollination as well as cross-pollination.

    Visitors and pollinators were identified, and the time, duration, and frequency of their visitation, as well as their behavior, were noted.


    Senna cana is an episodic evergreen species showing seasonal and highly synchronous reproductive events intermediate flowering after a rainy period, and long fruiting during the dry period. These flowering characteristics, in addition to the syndrome of melittophily, are important strategies for attracting floral visitors including Xylocopa frontalis and X. The self-incompatibility and maximization of fruit production through cross-pollination represent reproductive mechanisms favored by the phenological strategies and the pollination syndrome demonstrated by this species.

    Fue observada intensa actividad de las obreras de M. Esos resultados indican que tanto M. During the period from January to April seeds of Zygia racemosa were found incorporated in the nest structures, inside the colonies of stingless bee in two experimental meliponaries in Manaus - Am. It was registered an intense activity of the bee-workers of Melipona seminigra merrillae and M. These seeds were planted in seedbeds for seedling production and posterior identification of the botanical species. As a way to confirm the scattering of the seeds, searches were done in the field in an area of approximately 3km of extension, as well as observations of the collection of the seeds made by the bees.

    A total of seedlings of Z. The results indicate that M. Lepidium barnebyanum Barneby ridge-cress. Astragalus holmgreniorum Astragalus ampullarioides Shivwitz milk-vetch. Schoenocrambe suffrutescens Shrubby reed Diet-morphology relationship in the stream-dwelling characid Deuterodon stigmaturus Gomes , Characiformes: Characidae is partially conditioned by ontogenetic development. Full Text Available ABSTRACT We tested whether interindividual variations in diet composition within a population of Deuterodon stigmaturus can be explained by morphological differences between individuals, and whether diet-morphology relationships are dependent on the ontogenetic development.

    We analyzed diet of 75 specimens sampled in a coastal stream of Southern Brazil. The most consumed food items by D. The LMMs showed that SL was positively related to consumption of terrestrial plants, whereas IL independent of SL was negatively related to aquatic invertebrates and positively related to filamentous algae.

    When body sized was held constant, ML was not related to diet variation. Interindividual diet differences conditioned to body size suggest that individuals shift their trophic niche and function in the ecosystem along the ontogenetic development. Relationships between intestine length and diet composition suggest interindividual differences in foraging ability and digestibility of distinct food items. Full Text Available Mangaba Hancornia speciosa Gomez seedlings were transplanted eleven months after emergence to the following substrates: At 70, and days after transplanting, plants were evaluated for height and number of leaf pairs.

    At the end of the experiment — days — roots and aerial part dry matter were weighed. The addition of 0. Root dry matter was slightly higher than aerial part dry matter on some treatments. Roots have developed more than aerial parts. In general, substrates with pH values between 5. Os obje The pollen grains of six species of Chamaecrista [C. Greene, C. Greene, and C. The species share specific morphological features regarding pollen size, endoaperture type circular, lalongate or lolongate and SEM ornamentation patterns of the exine rugulate with perforations or perforate.

    Andira fraxinifolia Benth. Don H. Pers showed different pollen types in small to large size; oblate spheroidal to prolate form; colpus or colporus apertures; circular, lalongate or lolongate endoapertures and distinctive SEM ornamentation patterns of the exine perforate, microreticulate, reticulate or rugulate with perforations. Only Stryphnodendron adstringens Mart. Coville presents polyads. The pollen morphology variation of these species allowed the Fabaceae family to be characterized as eurypalynous in the SPA Pau-de-Fruta. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of wildland collections of western and Searls prairie clovers for rangeland revegetation in the western USA.

    Western prairie clover [Dalea ornata Douglas ex Hook. Gray Barneby ], also a perennial legume, occurs in the southern Great Basin and surrounding areas. Understanding the genetic and The invasive alien tree Falcataria moluccana: Falcataria moluccana Miq. Barneby and Grimes is a large tree that has become invasive in forests and developed landscapes across many Pacific islands. A fast-growing nitrogenfixing species, it transforms invaded ecosystems by dramatically increasing nutrient inputs, suppressing native species and facilitating invasion by other weeds.

    Individuals rapidly reach heights Alternatively, you may use one of the following methods to request hard copies or a CD-ROM of the documents Barneby ridge-cress Lepidium barnebyanum , Barney reed-mustard Schoenocrambe barnebyi , Holmgren milk Pediocactus despainii , Shivwitz milk-vetch Astragalus ampullarioides , shrubby reed-mustard Schoenocrambe Searls prairie clover Dalea searlsiae for rangeland revegetation: Phenotypic and genetic evaluations.

    Gray Barneby ] is one that holds promise. Commercial-scale seed production of this species could address the issues of unreliable seed availability and high seed costs associated with its wildland seed collection. To evaluate its Tropospheric NO2 over China. A, van der R.

    This approach. Satellite-Based Stratospheric and Tropospheric Measurements: This report summarizes research done under these grants through December 31, Three GOME -2 instruments are now scheduled to fly on the Metop series of operational meteorological satellites Eumetsat. Annual rainfall during and was close to the historical averaged annual means. Over the five-year study period, both biomes behaved as CO2 sinks.

    On an annual basis, accumulated NEE -8d exhibited major variability in both biomes. At CIBA, the results were largely dominated by the. John W. Jennings; Michael D. The existence of thousands of soft-story woodframe buildings in California has been recognized as a disaster preparedness problem resulting in mitigation efforts throughout the state.

    The considerable presence of these large multi-family buildings in San Francisco prompted the city to mandate their retrofitting over the next seven years. Full Text Available This experiment was performed to examine the effects of Andrographis paniculata Nees leaves extract on foetus morphology if given during organogenesis period. Thirty pregnant mice were randomly divided into 5 groups for teratogenic effects.

    Treatment was given from day 6 to day 13 of gestation organogenesis period. Foetus were removed on day 18 of gestation by caesarean section. The results showed that teratogenic effects increased in dose-related manner by causing foetus death and resorption, hemorrhage and clubfoot. Full Text Available Andrographolide is one of the major diterpene lactones found in Andrographis paniculata Nees and exhibits remarkable inhibitory effects on various cancers. In this study, the antipulmonary cancer effects of andrographolide were studied in a lung tumor mouse model induced by human vascular endothelial growth factor A hVEGF-A These results demonstrated that andrographolide significantly reduced the expression of hVEGF-A compared with a mock group in the Clara cells of the lungs.

    These results indicated that andrographolide treatment on the overexpression of VEGF can arrest the cell cycle, which induced pulmonary tumors in transgenic mice. In conclusion, the antiangiogenesis and chemotherapeutic potential of andrographolide may provide a cure for pulmonary tumors in the future. Improvement in the yield and quality of kalmegh Andrographis paniculata Nees under the sustainable production system. Andrographis paniculata Nees is an annual erect herb with wide medicinal and pharmacological applications due to the presence of andrographolide and other active chemical constituents.

    The large-scale cultivation of the kalmegh is not in practice. The aim of this study was to establish sustainable production systems of A. The soil organic carbon, soil microbial respiration, soil enzymes activity and available nutrients improved significantly with combined application of bioinoculants and chemical fertilisers.

    Full Text Available Objective: The leaf samples were subjected to organoleptic, microscopic and macroscopic analysis. Physiochemical properties and fluorescence analysis of the sample under UV and daylight were studied as per World Health Organization norms. Microscopic analysis showed that the plant possessed dorsiventral leaves, lamina, glandular trichomes, calcium carbonate cystoliths and adaxial epidermis. Physiochemical characters like ash and moisture content, extractive values, foreign matter and fluorescent characteristics of the leaf samples were determined and reported.

    Results obtained from these studies can be used as reliable markers in the identification and standardization of this plant as a herbal remedy. A satellite view of riverine turbidity plumes on the NE-E Brazilian coastal zone. The analysis of the satellite image data set revealed that each river system exhibits a distinct turbidity plume dispersal pattern. The plume has lost its typical unimodal seasonal pattern of material dispersion and its turbidity has decreased due to the regulation of river flow by the dams and TSS retainance by the reservoirs.

    The Caravelas Coastal System river plume is restricted to near shore shallow waters dominated by resuspension processes. During austral spring and summer when NE-E winds prevail, all plumes generally disperse southward. Short-term northward reversals may occur in winter with the passage of atmospheric cold fronts.

    The experiments were carried out to assess the effect of fertilizer application on indigenous medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata Nees Sega-gyi on yield components such as plant heigh cm , fresh weight of whole plant g , dry weigth of whole plant g , dry weigth of leave per plant g , mineral elemental contents of the leaves N, P, K, Ca and Mg and medically active compound andrographolide of the leaves from the green-house experiment. Various methods applied in the growth of medicinal plant A. In all the fertilizer treatments, the dripping Dropwise method using the BGA biofertilizer gave rise to the highest growth of cm when the average fresh weigth of the whole plant was g.

    Andrographolide crystals were isolated, identified and confirmed by chromatographic techniques. Analytical results of the leaves of Sega-gyi by the dripping Dropwise method indicated the presence of 2. Although the mechanism of micro-algal plant growth regulatory action has not yet been studied, from this research work it was observed that the BGA biofertilizer promotes plant growth, improves the soil physical conditions, and also enhance the yield of medicinally active compound andrographolide. Pancreatic effect of andrographolide isolated from Andrographis paniculata Burm.

    Andrographis paniculata Burm. Nees is a plant that originates from India and grows widely to Southeast which used for several purposes mainly as treatment of diabetes mellitus so the aim of this study was evaluate andrographolide for its pancreatic effect in neonatal streptozotocin STZ -induced diabetic rats, a model of type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetic condition was induced with an intraperitoneal injection of 90 mg kg -1 streptozotocin in two-day-old rats.

    After three months, the neonatal STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated with andrographolide or andrographolide-enriched extract of A. Pancreatic effect was evaluated by estimating mainly the preprandial and postprandial blood glucose levels and other parameters such as morphology of pancreatic islet, beta cells density and morphology and immunohistochemically pancreatic insulin. Andrographolide significantly p Clara Haber, nee Immerwahr Life, Work and Legacy.

    We examine the life, work, and legacy of Clara Haber, nee Immerwahr, who became the first woman to earn a doctorate from the University of Breslau, in In she married the chemist Fritz Haber. With no employment available for female scientists, Clara freelanced as an instructor in the continued education of women, mainly housewives, while struggling not to become a housewife herself. Her duties as a designated head of a posh household hardly brought fulfillment to her life.

    The outbreak of WWI further exacerbated the situation, as Fritz Haber applied himself in extraordinary ways to aid the German war effort. The night that he celebrated the "success" of the first chlorine cloud attack, Clara committed suicide. We found little evidence to support claims that Clara was an outspoken pacifist who took her life because of her disapproval of Fritz Haber's involvement in chemical warfare.

    We conclude by examining "the myth of Clara Immerwahr" that took root in the s from the perspective offered by the available scholarly sources, including some untapped ones. Hydrochemistry in the Tropical Forested River: Nguyen, T. In low-flow conditions all cations and Cl-, HCO3-, SO showed significant enrichment in the lower compared to the upper catchment, whereas, NO3- and F- had the opposite pattern.

    In high-flow conditions, the spatial distribution patterns of the ions was largely unchanged across the catchment except that F- was enriched in the lower compared to the upper catchment. This study provides new data and insights for the understudied South East Asia region. The invasion of leptochloa chinensis L. In , red sprangletop Leptochloa chinensis L. Nees ] was first observed at site 2 Sungai Udang in the southern part of the Muda area.

    In the first cropping season of , the populations of L. Consequently, the populations gradually spread to other parts of the Muda area. In , the infestations were recorded at sampling site 6 Kubang Pangas which is about 50 km from the original infestation sites. In , most of the southern parts of Muda area were colonized by this weed.

    In , the populations reached the northern part of Muda area. The whole Muda area was finally covered with L. The intensive survey conducted in from the 20 sampling sites showed that in addition to L. However, by far the single most dominant weed species was L. Based on the spatial quantitative vegetative analysis, L. The L. Antidiabetic and antihiperlipidemic effect of Andrographis paniculata Burm. Nees and andrographolide in high-fructose-fat-fed rats. Nees originates from India and grows widely in many areas in Southeast Asian countries. Nees has shown an antidiabetic effect in type 1 DM rats.

    The present study investigates the purified extract of the plant and its active compound andrographolide for antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects in high-fructose-fat-fed rats, a model of type 2 DM rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were treated with the extract or test compound on the 50th day.

    Antidiabetic activity was measured by estimating mainly the pre— and postprandial blood glucose levels and other parameters such as cholesterol, LDL, triglyceride, and body weight. The purified extract and andrographolide significantly PAndrographis paniculata Burm. Nees or its active compound andrographolide showed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in high-fat-fructose-fed rat. Seed longevity of Eragrostis plana Nees buried in natural grassland soil. The experimental design was a split-plot type in complete blocks with two factors: The blocks were allocated in natural grassland grazed by cattle, allocated in a m-long transection.

    Fifty-four permeable nylon bags filled with seeds in each division, with five vertical divisions, were buried in each row. Seven exhumation dates were used: The percentage of viable seeds of E. Based on the model, the percentage of viable seeds collected at the five depths, soil surface and 2. Increase in depth is directly associated with physical and physiological seed integrity of E. Negative simple exponential equations can be used to predict seed longevity of E.

    This invader species accumulates soil seed-bank of high longevity. Germination of Ocotea pulchella Nees Mez Lauraceae seeds in laboratory and natural restinga environment conditions. Full Text Available The germination response of Ocotea pulchella Nees Mez seeds to light, temperature, water level and pulp presence is introduced. The seeds do not exhibit dormancy, they are non photoblastic, and a loss of viability in dry stored seeds can be related to a decrease in water content of the seed. The presence of the pulp and the flooded substratum influenced negatively the germination of O.

    Otherwise, light and temperature probably are not limiting factors of the germination of O. The isotherms exhibited a sigmoidal pattern well described by the Weibull model in the sub-optimal temperature range. The germinability of O. Germination was not affected by fluctuations in soil moisture content in the understorey environment, whereas in gaps, germination was higher in wet soils.

    Thus, the germination of this species involves the interaction of two or more factors and it cannot be explained by a single factor. The germination response of Ocotea pulchella Nees Mez seeds to light, temperature, water level and pulp presence is introduced. The optimum temperature range for germination of Ocotea pulchella seeds was 20 to 32 degrees C, the minimum or base temperature estimated was 11 degrees C and the maximum ranged between 33 and 42 degrees C. Wetlands are considered one of the most productive and ecologically valuable ecosystems on earth. We investigated the multi-temporal linkages of net ecosystem exchange NEE with the relevant climatic and ecohydrological drivers for a Florida Everglades short-hydroperiod freshwater wetland.

    Hourly NEE observations and the associated driving variables during were collected from the AmeriFlux and EDEN databases, and then averaged for the four temporal scales 1-day, 8-day, day, and day. Pearson correlation and factor analysis were employed to identify the interrelations and grouping patterns among the participatory variables for each time scale. The climatic and ecohydrological linkages of NEE were then reliably estimated using bootstrapped iterations partial least squares regressions by resolving multicollinearity.

    The analytics identified four bio-physical components exhibiting relatively robust interrelations and grouping patterns with NEE across the temporal scales. Further, RE and TH had a decreasing trend with the increasing time scales days. In contrast, the linkages of AD and AC components increased from 1-day to 8-day scales, and then remained relatively invariable at the longer scales of aggregation.

    The estimated linkages provide insights into the dominant biophysical process components and drivers of ecosystem carbon in the Everglades. The invariant linking pattern and linkages would help to develop low-dimensional models to reliably predict CO2 fluxes from the tidal freshwater wetlands. Herb-drug interaction of Andrographis paniculata Nees extract and andrographolide on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic of naproxen in rats. Andrographis paniculata Nees Acanthacae have broad range of pharmacological effects such as hepatoprotective, antifertility, antimalarial, antidiabetic, suppression of various cancer cells and anti-inflammatory properties and is widely used medicinal plant in the traditional Unani and Ayurvedic medicinal systems.

    Andrographolide AN is one of the active constituent of the A. They have been found in many traditional herbal formulations in India and proven to be effective as anti-inflammatory drug. To evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic anti arthritic herb-drug interactions of A.

    Change in paw volume, mechanical nociceptive threshold, mechanical hyperalgesia, histopathology and hematological parameters were evaluated to study antiarthritic activity. The results obtained from this study suggested that NP, APE and pure AN existed pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions in rat which is correlated with anti-arthritic study. The knowledge regarding possible herb-drug interaction of NP might be helpful for physicians as well as patients using AP.

    So further studies should be done to understand the effect of other herbal ingredients of APE on NP as well as to predict the herb-drug interaction in humans. Brown, Jr. These densely instrumented geotechnical and structural engineering field sites continuously record both acceleration and pore pressure, with accelerometers located on the surface and at various depths below the surface, and pore pressure transducers installed at depth within the liquefiable layers.

    Permanently instrumented structures for examining soil-foundation-structure interaction and a permanent cross-hole array at the sites have transformed these sites into multi-disciplinary earthquake engineering research facilities. Over the last decade, local and regional seismic activity, including multiple extremely active earthquake swarms, have produced a valuable new data set providing a unique opportunity to observe site response and the evolution of pore pressure generation with time throughout the liquefiable layer at an unprecedented level of detail.

    In addition to the earthquakes provided by nature, active testing experiments using the mobile shakers from NEES UTexas and NEES UCLA have produced an equally valuable data set on both site characterization studies and soil-foundation-structure interaction. The new observations of pore pressure and acceleration with depth are providing in situ empirical evidence documenting the range of ground motion levels at which the onset of nonlinear behavior and excess pore pressure begins, augmenting previous case history data, and laboratory data from cyclic tri-axial and centrifuge testing.

    The largest static pore pressure increases observed in the ' NEES ' decade of monitoring were generated by four events at the WLA site, ranging in magnitude from 4. The largest peak horizontal. Initial evaluation of fruit of accessions of Persea schiedeana Nees for nutritional value, quality and oil extraction. Persea schiedeana Nees is an underutilized and very little known species whose fruit is consumed in Mesoamerica where it grows wild. This study was carried out to evaluate: There was a significant relationship between the dry matter and oil contents in the pulp. The oils had good fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity.

    The results gave an initial picture about the total phenol contents and antioxidant capacities in the seeds and in the different parts of the fruit. Safety of dried sambiloto Andrographis paniculata Burm. Lebak Bulus Raya No. Andrographis paniculata nees Family: Acanthaceae is a medicinal plant commonly cultivated in Asian countries.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of gamma irradiated sambiloto against to animal test mice and to support the application of nuclear techniques for radiation pasteurization of sambiloto as health products without changing the properties. In the acute toxicity test was observed the effects of the tested material on behavioral changes, abnormalities in the function of several organs and body weight changes in animal test every day for 2 weeks.

    The results showed that the ethanol extract of unirradiated and irradiated with dose of 7. Divergent NEE balances from manual-chamber CO2 fluxes linked to different measurement and gap-filling strategies: A source for uncertainty of estimated terrestrial C sources and sinks? Manual closed-chamber measurements are commonly used to quantify annual net CO2 ecosystem exchange NEE in a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems.

    However, differences in both the acquisition and gap filling of manual closed-chamber data are large in the existing literature, complicating inter Measurements were made during — in a lucerne-clover-grass field in NE Germany. Across the different combinations of measurement and gap-filling options, the NEE balances Description of a new species, Setaleyrodes machili Dubey, sp.

    A new species of whitefly, Setaleyrodes machili Dubey sp. The diagnostic characteristics of puparia and habitus, are illustrated with line drawings and scanning electron microphotographs.

    Sexual dimorphism and variation in pigmentation during the transformation of instars are noted. An identification key to puparia of Setaleyrodes species so far described is presented. The effects of Andrographis paniculata Burm. Nees on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of midazolam in healthy volunteers.

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata Burm. Nees has been widely used for centuries in Asia for the treatment of common coldand diarrhea. Although it was previously reported to inhibit cytochrome P in vitro, the potential to cause herb-druginteraction has been questioned. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of A. The study was anopen-label, randomized, 2-phase crossover design with a 2-weeks washout period.

    Twelve healthy male volunteers received4 capsules of mg A. Midazolam plasma concentration time profiles werecharacterized after a single oral dose of 7. Pharmacodynamicsof midazolam were also evaluated. The results demonstrated that pretreatment with A. However, A. Therefore, co-administration of A. The aim of the study was to investigate the herb-drug interaction of Andrographis paniculata Nees Acanthaceae and Andrographolide AN with nabumetone NAB in wistar rats.

    Further study is needed to understand the mechanism and predict the herb-drug interaction in humans. Lethal Dose 50 DL 50 of ethanol extract from sambiloto unirradiated or irradiated at the dose of 7. Eragrostis plana Nees as a novel eco-friendly adsorbent for removal of crystal violet from aqueous solutions.

    Eragrostis plana Nees EPN was used as new and eco-friendly adsorbent for the removal of crystal violet dye CV from aqueous solution. The effects of initial pH of solution, adsorbent mass, contact time and initial dye concentration, and temperature were studied in batch adsorption mode. Kinetic data were evaluated by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models. The result exhibited that pseudo-second-order model well described the adsorption kinetics of CV onto EPN.

    Langmuir, Freundlich, and Sips isotherm models were used for analysis of the isothermal data. Based on the Sips isotherm model, the maximum adsorption capacity was The thermodynamic data indicated that the adsorption was spontaneous, endothermic, and physical process. EPN can be used as alternative adsorbent to remove CV from aqueous solution. Resource investigation of traditional medicinal plant Panax japonicus T.

    Nees C. Mey and its varieties in China. Panax japonicus, the perennial herb in the Araliaceae family, was used as the natural medicinal herb by Chinese traditional doctors for more than thousand years. Its rhizome was mainly used as a tonic, anti-inflammatory and hemostatic agent in China. Most of the therapeutic effects of P.

    Volatile oil, polysaccharides and amino acids had also been found in P. A three-year survey was conducted to determine the current resource status of P. Mey and its varieties P. Whole plants were sampled at 64 sites. Resource distribution, habitat type, morphological variation and market trend of them were studied and discussed. The natural resource in China is rarely available due to extensive exploitation and continual environment deterioration in recent decades, Abundance of P.

    Wild resources of P. Despite their dramatic rise of market trend, the artificial cultivation of them was still not fully developed in China, but progressed rapidly in Hubei province. In this study, we synthesized our understandings of the current resource state of P. This study will aid further investigations and increased protection of these plants, which are very valuable to traditional herbal medicine.

    Diketahui model kanker payudara dengan induksi DMBA untuk menginvestigasi perubahan dari sel epitel yang terjadi selama prorses karsinogenesis kanker payudara. Pemberian ekstrak sambiloto pada tikus yang mengalami kanker payudara menyebabkan penurunan volume tumor dan ditinjau dari aspek hispatologi dan imunohistokimia adanya ekstrak sambiloto menyebabkan penghambatan proliferasi sel, penurunan ekspresi telomerase dan meningkatkan apoptosis. Kata Kunci: Andrographis paniculata,DMBA, kanker payudara, proliferasi sel. Nees extract and diterpenoids on the CYP isoforms' activities, a review of possible herb-drug interaction risks. Nees is a popular medicinal plant and its components are used in various traditional product preparations. However, its herb-drug interactions risks remain unclear. This review specifically discusses the various published studies carried out to evaluate the effects of Andrographis paniculata Burm. Nees plant extracts and diterpenoids on the CYP metabolic enzyme and if the plant components pose a possible herb-drug interaction risk.

    A complete CYP inhibition assay utilizing human liver microsomes and the derivation of relevant parameters to predict herb-drug interaction risks may be necessary for these isoforms. However, based on the current studies, none of the extracts and diterpenoids exhibited CYP induction activity in human hepatocytes or human-derived cell lines.

    It is crucial that a well-defined experimental design is needed to make a meaningful herb-drug interaction prediction. Long-term impacts of peatland restoration on the net ecosystem exchange NEE of blanket bogs in Northern Scotland. Unmanaged peatlands represent an important long-term C sink and thus play an important part of the global C cycle. The Flow Country of Northern Scotland is the largest area of contiguous blanket bog in the UK, and one of the biggest in Europe, covering an area in excess of km2 and plays a key role in mediating regional atmospheric exchanges of greenhouse gases GHGs such as carbon dioxide CO2 , and water vapour H2O.

    However, these peatlands underwent significant afforestation in the s, when over km2 of blanket bog were drained and planted with Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis and Lodgepole pine Pinus contorta. This resulted in modifications to hydrology, micro-topography, vegetation and soil properties all of which are known to influence the production, emission and sequestration of key GHGs. Since the late s restoration work has been carried out to remove forest plantations and raise water tables, by drain blocking, to encourage the recolonisation of Sphagnum species and restore ecosystem functioning.

    Here, we report findings of NEE and its constituent fluxes, GPP and Reco, from a study investigating the impacts of restoration on C dynamics over a chronosequence of restored peatlands. The research explored the role of environmental variables and microtopography in modulating land-atmosphere exchanges, using a multi-scale sampling approach that incorporated eddy covariance measurements with dynamic flux chambers.

    Key age classes sampled included an undrained peatland; an older restored peatland 17 years old ; and a more recently restored site 12 years old. The oldest restored site showed the strongest uptake of C, with an annual assimilation rate of g C m-2 yr-1 compared to assimilation rates of g C m-2 yr-1 and g C m-2 yr-1 from the younger restored site and.

    Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic herb-drug interaction of Andrographis paniculata Nees extract and andrographolide with etoricoxib after oral administration in rats. Andrographis paniculata Nees Acanthacae is commonly used medicinal plant in the traditional. Unani and Ayurvedic medicinal systems. It has broad range of pharmacological effects such as hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antivenom, antifertility, inhibition of replication of the HIV virus, antimalarial, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, suppression of various cancer cells and anti-inflammatory properties.

    They have been found in many traditional herbal formulations in India and proven to be effective as anti-inflammatory drug To evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic anti-arthritic herb-drug interactions of A. The results obtained from this study suggested that ETO, APE and pure AN existed pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions in rat which is correlated with anti-arthritic study. Physicians and patients using A. Nees , induces autophagy in human oral cancer cells.

    Autophagy, which is constitutively executed at the basal level in all cells, promotes cellular homeostasis by regulating the turnover of organelles and proteins. Andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide DA are the two principle components of Andrographis paniculata Burm. However, the pharmacological activities of dehydroandrographolide DA remain unclear. In this study, DA induces oral cancer cell death by activating autophagy.

    Treatment with autophagy inhibitors inhibited DA-induced human oral cancer cell death. Furthermore, DA induced autophagy and decreased cell viability through modulation of p53 expression. Finally, an administration of DA effectively suppressed the tumor formation in the oral carcinoma xenograft model in vivo. This is the first study to reveal the novel function of DA in activating autophagy, suggesting that DA could serve as a new and potential chemopreventive agent for treating human oral cancer.

    Studies on effects of Andrographis paniculata Burm. Acanthaceae extracts against two mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus Say. To investigate the studies on effects of Andrographis paniculata A. Acanthaceae extracts against two mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus Cx.

    The aqueous and petroleum ether extracts of two plant species, A. In a 24 h bioassay experiment with plant extracts, highest mortalities were recorded at ppm of concentrations for leaves of A. For combination effect, only ppm of the mixture of solvent extracts of petroleum ether: The results show that, insecticides of plant combination is ecofriend and has better larvicidal activity compared to individual extracts. Published by Elsevier B. Control of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species in guava, mango and papaya using synergistic combinations of chitosan and Cymbopogon citratus D.

    This study assessed the efficacy of chitosan Chi and Cymbopogon citratus D. Paluma, mango Mangifera indica L. Tommy Atkins and papaya Carica papaya L. Papaya artificially inoculated with these species. Combinations of Chi 2. Examined Chi-CCEO combinations showed additive or synergistic interactions to inhibit the target Colletotrichum species based on the Abbott index. Overall, anthracnose lesion development inhibition in fruit coated with synergistic Chi-CCEO combinations was higher than that observed in fruit treated with synthetic fungicides. These results show that the application of coatings formed by Chi-CCEO synergistic combinations could be effective to control postharvest anthracnose development in fruit.

    Chemical composition of the essential oil and supercritical CO2 extract of Commiphora myrrha Nees Engl. Volatile concentrates from the oleo-gum resin of Commiphora myrrha Nees Engl. The volatile oil of myrrh was obtained at 9. Acorus calamus was extracted at 9. In both cases, an oil devoid of cuticular waxes was obtained with a single depressurization stage. The SFE myrrh oil had a yield, Y, of 3. The main components of the SFE oil of A. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella.

    Salmonella and fecal coliforms were determined. Hybrid analysis barcode-high resolution melting for authentication of Thai herbal products, Andrographis paniculata Burm. Andrographis paniculata Nees is a medicinal plant with multiple pharmacological properties. It has been used over many centuries as a household remedy. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. The rbcL barcode was selected to use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profile of A.

    DNA of the tested commercial products was isolated and their melting profiles were then generated and compared with the standard A. The melting profiles of the rbcL amplicons of the three closely related herbal species A. The method was then used to authenticate commercial herbal products. HRM curves of all 10 samples tested are similar to A. We propose the use of DNA barcoding combined with High Resolution Melting analysis for authenticating of Andrographis paniculata products.

    The developed method can be used regardless of the type of the DNA template fresh or dried tissue, leaf, and stem. The anti-inflammatory effect of Andrographis paniculata Burm. Nees APN , a principal constituent of a famous traditional Chinese medicine Fukeqianjin tablet which is used for the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease PID , has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effect in vitro.

    However, whether it has pharmacological effect on PID in vivo is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to test the anti-inflammatory effect of APN and illuminate a potential mechanism. Pathogen-induced PID rats were constructed.

    The prednisone group rats were administrated with prednisone. Eight days after the first infection, the histological examination of upper genital tract was carried out, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA was carried out using homogenate of the uterus and fallopian tube. Full Text Available It has been conducted a study of identify population of spermatogenic cells of mice after induction Durian Durio zibethinus Murr.

    This research used completely randomized design with five treatments i. ED-XRF spectrometric analysis of comparative elemental composition of in vivo and in vitro roots of Andrographis paniculata Burm. Behera, P. The multi-elemental composition of in vitro-proliferated root tissues of Andrographis paniculata Burm. The elemental content of in vitro roots was found to be at par with that of naturally grown plants of the same species.

    This opens up a possibility of exploiting in vitro root cultures as a viable, alternative and renewable source of phytochemicals of relevance, besides providing a means for conservation of the valuable natural resources. Full Text Available Our susceptibility to various infectious diseases can be avoided by increasing the specific immune responses either by the proliferation of lymphocytes.

    Immunomodulator effect of Andrographis paniculata Burm. Nees and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb have been well evaluated. However, scientific evidence is still needed in their use as a drug candidate. This study explores further effect of the immunomodulator from 5 ethanol extract groups. Quantitative analysis was also completed using a densitometer to obtain andrographolide and curcumin levels of ethanol extract. The results of quantitative analysis in From the MTT test, all treatment groups were significantly different from the control group.

    Based on the OD values, the best combination to increase lymphocyte cell proliferation ETS was a group contained Nonetheless, the value was not higher than the ability of ET in increasing cell proliferation. Separation of five compounds from leaves of Andrographis paniculata Burm. Nees by off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography combined with gradient and recycling elution.

    An off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography method combined with gradient and recycling elution mode was established to isolate terpenoids and flavones from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata Burm. It has been demonstrated that the combination of off-line two-dimensional high-speed counter-current chromatography with different elution modes is an efficient technique to isolate compounds from complex natural product extracts. KGaA, Weinheim. Oryza granulata Nees et Arn. In this study, the homology and physical locations of three rice resistance genes, Glh,Bph-3 and xa-5 are comparatively analyzed between O.

    Additionally, colinearity is shown for the two clones between O. Another BAC clone 44B4 is located on the end of the short arm of other chromosome pair in these two species. Although the phylogenetic relationship between O. Feb 28, Manual irrigation was In vitro establishment. Improving Indonesian cinnamon c. Genus Cinnamomum Lauraceae regroups some species whose stem bark are harvested, conditioned and traded as cinnamon in an international market. Over the centuries, the species have been domesticated so that now at least six different ones are grown in Southeast Asia countries.

    One of the species is Cinnamomum burmannii, also known as Korintje Cinnamon, which generates income for most smallholder farmers in Kerinci district, Jambi, Indonesia. Most cinnamon consumed in the world originates from this Korintje Cinnamon products. It is recognized for its unparalleled quality that comes with its sharp and sweet flavor, with a slightly bitter edge. However, international market requirements for product certification and quality standards make it difficult for a farmer to comply.

    Smallholder farmers are very vulnerable to climate change impacts, and thus empowering the value chains of agricultural products will increase farmers resilience to climate change.

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    Regeneration of Andrographis paniculata Nees: Analysis of genetic Jul 31, Asian counties. The leaves and To characterize the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata, a bitter Indian herb grown in Nigeria, for the purpose of quality control. The determination of bitterness value and of various physicochemical characteristics; tests for key phytochemicals; and thin layer chromatography TLC of the air-dried herb, Spectrophotometric determination of total lactones in Andrographis paniculata Nees.

    Full Text Available A spectrophotometric method for determination of total lactones in Andrographis paniculata was established by using dinitrobenzoic acid and potassium hydroxide solutions as colour forming agents. The absorbance of the solution was determined at nm. The detection limit was 1. The intraday variation had an average of slope The interday variation had an average of g.

    The coefficients of determination were 0. The total lactones content, calculated as andrographolide, determined by this method was 8. De allochtoon: Stereotyperen doen we allemaal. Omdat we zulke sterke beelden over de groep hebben waartoe ze behoren. Analysis of the Anticancer Phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata Nees. Full Text Available Salinity causes the adverse effects in all physiological processes of plants. The present study aimed to investigate the potential of salt stress to enhance the accumulation of the anticancer phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata accessions.

    For this purpose, day-old plants were grown in different salinity levels 0. After inducing a period of day salinity stress and before flowering, all plants were harvested and the data on morphological traits, proline content and the three anticancer phytochemicals, including andrographolide AG, neoandrographolide NAG, and deoxy,didehydroandrographolide DDAG, were measured. The results indicated that salinity had a significant effect on the aforementioned three anticancer phytochemicals. In other words, under salinity stress, the tolerant accessions were capable of accumulating the higher amounts of proline, AG, and NAG than the sensitive accessions.

    The separation was acquired on Sunfire C18 column with an isocratic mixture of methanol and water at a ratio of 6: The accuracy was analyzed by adding the standard andrographolide, and good recovery values were obtained for all concentrations used. The HPLC method developed in this study showed specificity and selectivity with linearity in the working range and good precision and accuracy, making it very suitable for the quantification of isolated andrographolide.

    Compared to the standard, the purity of the isolated andrographolide was Prelimenary study to determined the highest solubility of isolated andrographolide in oil, surfactant and co-surfactant phases for preperation of SNEDDS were obtained 1. Micropropagation and assessment of genetic fidelity of Dendrocalamus strictus Roxb.

    Dendrocalamus strictus popularly known as 'Male bamboo' is a multipurpose bamboo which is extensively utilized in pharmaceutical, paper, agricultural and other industrial implements. In this study, in vitro regeneration of D. The effect of Kn was found to be moderate.

    These hormones also had considerable effect on the shoot length. The highest number of root 1. Tissue-cultured plants thus obtained were successfully transferred to the soil. All the bands generated were monomorphic. These results confirmed the clonal fidelity of the tissue culture-raised D. Andrographolides, the diterpene lactones, are major bioactive phytochemicals which could be found in different parts of the medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata.

    A number of such compounds namely andrographolide AG , neoandrographolide NAG , and deoxy,didehydroandrographolide DDAG have already attracted a great deal of attention due to their potential therapeutic effects in hard-to-treat diseases such as cancers and HIV. Recently, they have also been considered as substrates for the discovery of novel pharmaceutical compounds.

    Nevertheless, there is still a huge gap in knowledge on the genetic pattern of the biosynthesis of these bioactive compounds. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate the genetic mechanisms controlling the biosynthesis of these phytochemicals using a diallel analysis. The high performance liquid chromatography analysis of the three andrographolides in F1 progenies confirmed that the biosynthesis of these andrographolides was considerably increased via intraspecific hybridization. Furthermore, the preponderance of non-additive gene actions was affirmed in the enhancement of the three andrographolides contents.

    The consequence of this type of gene action was the occurrence of high broad-sense and low narrow-sense heritabilities for the above mentioned andrographolides. The prevalence of non-additive gene action suggests the suitability of heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production as a preferred option to produce new plant varieties with higher andrographolide contents using the wild accessions of A. Moreover, from an evolutionary point of view, the occurrence of population bottlenecks in the Malaysian accessions of A. A classical genetic solution to enhance the biosynthesis of anticancer phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata Nees.

    Full Text Available Andrographolides, the diterpene lactones, are major bioactive phytochemicals which could be found in different parts of the medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata. A number of such compounds namely andrographolide AG, neoandrographolide NAG, and deoxy,didehydroandrographolide DDAG have already attracted a great deal of attention due to their potential therapeutic effects in hard-to-treat diseases such as cancers and HIV. A Review of Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology. Full Text Available As aboriginal sources of medications, medicinal plants are used from the ancient times.

    Andrographis paniculata is one of the highly used potential medicinal plants in the world. This plant is traditionally used for the treatment of common cold, diarrhoea, fever due to several infective cause, jaundice, as a health tonic for the liver and cardiovascular health, and as an antioxidant. It is also used to improve sexual dysfunctions and serve as a contraceptive. All parts of this plant are used to extract the active phytochemicals, but the compositions of phytoconstituents widely differ from one part to another and with place, season, and time of harvest. Our extensive data mining of the phytoconstituents revealed more than 55 ent-labdane diterpenoids, 30 flavonoids, 8 quinic acids, 4 xanthones, and 5 rare noriridoids.

    In this review, we selected only those compounds that pharmacology has already reported. Finally we focused on around 46 compounds for further discussion. We also discussed ethnobotany of this plant briefly. Recommendations addressing extraction process, tissue culture, and adventitious rooting techniques and propagation under abiotic stress conditions for improvement of phytoconstituents are discussed concisely in this paper.

    Further study areas on pharmacology are also proposed where needed. Intraspecific Crossability in Andrographis paniculata Nees: A Barrier against Breeding of the Species. The ambiguity of crossability in Andrographis paniculata AP was pointed out in the present research. Accordingly, the effects of different style length and crossing time on intraspecific crossability of seven AP accessions in 21 possible combinations were investigated. The best results came out between All in all, AP behaved unlikely in each combination, and a significant difference was observed in crossability of AP accessions P Analysis of the Anticancer Phytochemicals in Andrographis paniculata Nees.

    Salinity causes the adverse effects in all physiological processes of plants. After inducing a period of day salinity stress and before flowering, all plants were harvested and the data on morphological traits, proline content and the three anticancer phytochemicals, including andrographolide AG , neoandrographolide NAG , and deoxy,didehydroandrographolide DDAG , were measured. As aboriginal sources of medications, medicinal plants are used from the ancient times. Full Text Available The ambiguity of crossability in Andrographis paniculata AP was pointed out in the present research.

    Acanthaceae of Yemen. Pollens and seeds of Hypoestes and Rhinacanthus collected from different field localities in Taiz and Soqotra Island, Yemen were investigated by using light and scanning electron microscopes. Pollen grains of Hypoestes were prolate in equatorial view, lobate trigonal to lobate circular in polar view whereas those of Rhinacanthus were sub spheroidal and rounded trigonal in polar view. The aperture was tricolporate and exine ornamentation was coarsely reticulate for all species in the two genera.

    Scanning electron microscopy and morphological observations showed that mature dry seeds of Hypoestes and Rhinacanthus have various sizes and shapes, the surface ornamentations observed were reticulate to cristate, an addition to the tuberculum and papillae. The three Hypoestes species differ in the seed structure which are useful for identification and their high structural diversity provides an important taxonomic value for species differentiation.

    Patienten met diabetes Mellitus type 1 screenen op coeliakie; Ja of nee. Diabetes mellitus type 1 is een veelvoorkomende ziekte. Deze ziekte blijkt niet op zichzelf te staan maar is onder andere geassocieerd met coeliakie. Coeliakie wordt behandeld middels een glutenvrij dieet. Phytostabilisation potential of lemon grass Cymbopogon flexuosus Nees ex Stend Wats on iron ore tailings.

    The present pot culture study was carried out for the potential phytostabilisation of iron ore tailings using lemon grass Cymbopogon flexuosus a drought tolerant, perennial, aromatic grass. Experiments have been conducted by varying the composition of garden soil control with iron ore tailings. The various parameters, viz. The studies have indicated that growth parameters of lemon grass in 1: However, the oil content of lemon grass in both the cases more or less remained same.

    The results also infer that at higher proportion of tailings the yield of biomass decreases. The studies indicate that lemongrass with its fibrous root system is proved to be an efficient soil binder by preventing soil erosion. Nees Torrend: Full Text Available Amauroderma rugosum is a wild mushroom that is worn as a necklace by the indigenous communities in Malaysia to prevent fits and incessant crying by babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritive composition and antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of A.

    Nutritional analysis of freeze-dried mycelia of A. Gas chromatographic analysis of HF revealed the presence of ethyl linoleate and ergosterol, compounds with known anti-inflammatory properties. In conclusion, the nutritive compositions and significant antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory effects of mycelia extracts of A. Frequency steps and compositions determine properties of nee - dling sensation during electroacupuncture.

    To investigate the relationship of electro-parameters and the electroacupuncture sensation EAS , which is thought to be an important factor for optimal treatment. The frequency steps and compositions of three frequently used electrical stimulations were set when the switch of the electroacupuncture apparatus was turned to the second or third grade of the dense-disperse frequency wave DD2 and DD3, respectively or the second grade of the continuous wave C2.

    Three groups of patients according to the three electroacupuncture stimulations were divided again into three sub-groups according to the stimulated acupoints: The EAS values were measured every 5 min during 30 min electroacupuncture treatments using a visual analogue scale. The frequency compositions of the three electroacupuncture stimulations were 3. In each sub-group of the C2 group, the EAS values from 10 to 30 min were significantly weaker than at 0 min. The sensation fluctuations in the DD2 and DD3 groups were different during the 30 min. The greater the frequency step of the electroacupuncture stimulation, the longer the needling sensation lasted.

    The electroacupuncture stimulations of the DD3 group were unsuitable for the facial acupoint because of its painful and uncomfortable EAS, but more suitable for the back acupoint. Spectroscopy study on structural elucidation of flavonoids from Solanum jabrense Agra and Nee and S. Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais. As flores de R. Raphiodon echinus is a prostrate weedy species that occurs in the Caatinga.

    In this work, floral biology and reproductive system were observed in order to understand the pollination ecology of this species. For the self-pollination, apomixis, geitonogamy and xenogamy experiments, buds were protected, emasculated, and pollinated when necessary. Flowers were tagged to estimate pollination success under natural conditions.

    Floral visitors were observed on different days from 7: The violet flowers of R. Anthesis is diurnal and is more frequent in the morning around 7: Flowers last for about ten hours and the number of flowers that open daily on each inflorescence varies. The flowers are visited by bees and butterflies.

    Based on behavior and frequency of visits, this bee was considered to be the effective pollinator of R. As regards the reproductive system, R. Changes in the contents of four active diterpenoids at different growth stages in Andrographis paniculata Burm. Nees Chuanxinlian. Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic activities of Andrographis paniculata are attributed to four major active diterpenoids: This study aims to quantify the four active diterpenoids in various plant organs of A. Methods Plants were grown in greenhouse and in field conditions, harvested at different growth stages, and separated into different organs for determination of the four active diterpenoids by an HPLC-DAD method.

    Results The most abundant diterpenoid was AP6 between seedling and vegetative stages in the greenhouse experiment High levels of AP6 were also detected in leaves at the transfer stage in the greenhouse experiment The levels of AP6 then decreased as plants matured. The highest content of AP4 was in cotyledons

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